Studies about vitamin D and cardiovascular health:
Conclusion: A study of 39 young adults found that those with higher vitamin D levels also had a higher level of cardiovascular fitness (Vo2 Max) and less body fat.
Note: Detailed overview of vitamin D’s role in cardiovascular health.
Vitamin D and Nifedipine in the Treatment of Chinese Patients with Grades I-II Essential Hypertension: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial (2014)
Conclusion: Randomized placebo-controlled trial gave one group of 63 hypertension patients 2,000 IU of vitamin D daily, another group of 63 hypertension patients received a placebo. The vitamin D group experienced a reduction in their blood pressure.
Impact of Vitamin D Insufficiency on the Epicardial Coronary Flow Velocity and Endothelial Function (2013)
Conclusion: Vitamin D levels and coronary flow rates of 222 cardiovascular patients were measured. Those with lower vitamin D levels had slower blood flow.
The Quantification of Vitamin D Receptors in Coronary Arteries and Their Association with Atherosclerosis (2012)
Conclusion: In this study of 39 post-menopausal monkeys with atherosclerosis, lower concentrations of vitamin D receptors (VDRs) were associated with more severe atherosclerosis. Could it be that individuals with a lower concentration of VDRs require more vitamin D than people with higher concentrations?
Vitamin D Deficiency is a Predictor of Reduced Survival in Patients with Heart Failure; Vitamin D Supplementation Improves Outcome (2012)
Conclusion: Vitamin D levels were measured in 3,009 heart failure patients and 46,825 healthy controls. The heart failure group had lower vitamin D levels and higher rates of deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency was found to increase mortality among heart failure patients and supplementation was found to improve survival. “Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in HF patients and is a significant predictor of reduced survival. Vitamin D supplementation was associated with improved outcome.”
Conclusion: Women who are vitamin D-deficient NOW are at higher risk for hypertension a decade from now.
A 16-Week Randomized Clinical Trial of 2000 International Units Daily Vitamin D3 Supplementation in Black Youth: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Adiposity, and Arterial Stiffness (2010)
Conclusion: A 4-month study of 44 black teenagers found that 95% had low vitamin D levels and that supplementing with 2,000 IU of vitamin D daily was effective for reducing arterial stiffness and increasing vitamin D levels. The study also found that the vitamin D levels of the obese subjects rose less than the leaner subjects. Although 2,000 IU daily was effective in raising levels, only 56% achieved sufficient levels after the four months.
Conclusion: A study of 340 black adults with type-2 diabetes found that those with the highest percentage of body fat also had the lowest vitamin D levels and the highest amount of carotid artery and aorta plaque. There is a correlation between high body fat and low vitamin D levels and a correlation between low vitamin D levels and increased risk for atherosclerosis
Conclusion: A study of 3,577 U.S. adolescents found that those with higher vitamin D levels had lower blood pressure compared to those with lower vitamin D levels.
Prevalence and Associations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Deficiency in US Children: NHANES 2001-2004 (2009)
Conclusion: A 3-year study of 9,757 U.S. children and young people found that: 61% had low vitamin D levels, those who spent more time watching/using TVs and computers had lower vitamin D levels, obese children had lower vitamin D levels, and those with lower vitamin D levels had higher blood pressure.
25-Hydroxyvitamin D Deficiency is Independently Associated with Cardiovascular Disease in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009)
Conclusion: This study examined 16,603 adult men and women. Out of these, 1,308 had cardiovascular disease and those with cardiovascular disease had a higher rate of vitamin D-deficiency than those without cardiovascular disease.
Independent Association of Low Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Levels with All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality (2008)
Conclusion: In an 8-year study of 3,258 elderly people, those with the lowest vitamin D levels had the highest mortality rate, with the majority of deaths resulting from cardiovascular causes.
Conclusion: This was a 10-year study involving 18,225 men ages 40-75. During the 10 years, 454 men suffered heart attacks. It was found that men with low, and even intermediate, levels of vitamin D were at an increased risk for heart attacks. This was true even after adjusting for BMI, alcohol/tobacco use, lifestyle, ethnicity, cholesterol, and history of diabetes.
Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and the Prevalence of Peripheral Arterial Disease: Results from NHANES 2001 to 2004 (2008)
Conclusion: A study of 4,839 adults found that those with lower vitamin D levels had higher rates of peripheral arterial disease.
Regional Differences in African Americans’ High Risk for Stroke: The Remarkable Burden of Stroke for Southern African Americans (2008)
Conclusion: This article covers how the risk of fatal stroke has been found to be 50-200% higher for black Americans compared to white Americans. Black people tend to have lower vitamin D levels than whites and vitamin D has been found to be a crucial element in cardiovascular health.
Optimal Vitamin D Status Attenuates the Age Associated Increase in Systolic Blood Pressure in White Americans: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008)
Conclusion: Data from the NHANES III longitudinal study was examined to find associations between vitamin D levels and systolic blood pressure. Researchers found that those with higher vitamin D levels > 32 ng/ml had 20% lower blood pressure compared to those with lower vitamin D levels < 20 ng/ml.
Association of Vitamin D Deficiency with Heart Failure and Sudden Cardiac Death in a Large Cross Sectional Study of Patients Referred to Coronary Angiography (2008)
Conclusion: The vitamin D levels of 3,299 people with heart problems were measured. Those with lower vitamin D levels were found to have higher rates of heart dysfunction, higher rates of hypertension, higher rates of diabetes, and higher rates of fatal heart failure after the followup.
Conclusion: Long-term longitudinal study followed 1,739 participants with no history of cardiovascular disease and measured their vitamin D levels. Researchers found that those with vitamin D deficiency were more likely to develop cardiovascular disease.
Conclusion: “Our prospective analysis suggests that lower plasma 25(OH)D levels are associated with a higher risk of incident hypertension.”
Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and the Serum Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in the United States: Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007)
Conclusion: A study of 15,000 adults found that those with high blood pressure had lower vitamin D levels.
Conclusion: Blacks have a much higher rate of stroke incidence and mortality compared to whites in the United States. This disparity has stubbornly persisted over a period of decades despite advances in stroke-preventing medical treatments. Could this be due to, as many other studies suggest, the consistently low vitamin D levels of the black population?
Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Concentrations and Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness Among Type 2 Diabetic Patients. (2006)
Conclusion: This study of 390 type-2 diabetics found that those with lower vitamin D levels had an increase in atherosclerosis severity.
Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Concentrations and Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Among Type 2 Diabetic Patients (2006)
Conclusion: Study examined 459 elderly type-2 diabetics and 459 age-matched non-diabetc controls. Researchers found a higher rate of vitamin D deficiency among the diabetics. Among those with diabetes, those with lower vitamin D levels had higher rates of cardiovascular disease.
Conclusion: A study of 44 elderly first-time stroke victims found that 77% of the stroke victims had low vitamin D levels compared to healthy elderly control subjects.
Conclusion: A study of 54 congestive heart failure patients found that the patients had lower vitamin D levels compared to control subjects.
Vitamin D Deficiency and Secondary Hyperparathyroidism Are Common Complications in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease (2002)
Conclusion: A study of 161 patients with peripheral arterial disease found that they had significantly lower vitamin D levels compared to healthy controls.
Note: Technical explanation of how vitamin D regulates blood pressure.
Effects of a Short-Term Vitamin D(3) and Calcium Supplementation on Blood Pressure and Parathyroid Hormone Levels in Elderly Women (2001)
Conclusion: A study of 148 vitamin D-deficient elderly women found that supplementing with 1200mg of calcium and 800 IU of vitamin D daily was effective for measurably lowering blood pressure.
Conclusion: Dark-skinned people living non-equatorial western countries have higher blood pressure than lighter-skinned people in these areas. This is partly because dark-skinned people have extreme difficulty synthesizing adequate amounts of vitamin D from sun exposure in areas like the northern U.S. and Great Britain due to the weakness of the sunlight in those regions and the increased melanin in their skin acting as a natural sun protectant blocking the UVB necessary for vitamin D production.
Vitamin D is Related to Blood Pressure and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Middle-Aged Men (1995)
Conclusion: A study of 34 middle-aged men found that those with higher vitamin D levels had lower blood pressure.
Conclusion: This study of 457 American black people found that those with the darkest skin had the highest blood pressure and that blood pressure increased with increased skin pigmentation. People with darker skin make less vitamin D from sun exposure and vitamin D-deficiency has been strongly associated with high blood pressure.
Myocardial Infarction is Inversely Associated with Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Levels: A Community-Based Study (1990)
Conclusion: The vitamin D levels of 179 heart attack patients were compared with healthy age and sex-matched controls. The heart attack patients had “significantly lower” vitamin D levels.
Conclusion: This survey of 1,000 Detroit adults (ages 25-60) found that those with darker skin had higher blood pressure and that the darker the skin the higher the blood pressure. People with darker skin make less vitamin D from sun exposure and vitamin D-deficiency has been strongly associated with high blood pressure.