Health studies about vitamin D and skeletal health. Search by category:


Osteomalacia / Rickets

Osteoporosis / Osteopenia


One-year Effects of Vitamin D and Calcium Supplementation on Chronic Periodontitis (2011)

Conclusion: 51 dental clinic patients were enrolled in a year-long study where half were given a low daily dose of vitamin D and calcium. Those receiving the supplements showed slightly better dental health.


Low Vitamin D Status Has an Adverse Influence on Bone Mass, Bone Turnover, and Muscle Strength in Chinese Adolescent Girls (2009)

Conclusion: In a study of 301 young Chinese girls, those with the higher vitamin D levels demonstrated superior handgrip strength and had higher bone mass.


Calcium plus Vitamin D Supplementation and the Risk of Fractures (2006)

Conclusion: A ten-year randomized control trial involving 36,000 elderly women found that those receiving a low dose of vitamin D and calcium supplements had higher bone density and suffered slightly fewer fractures compared to the placebo group.


Effect of Vitamin D Replacement on Musculoskeletal Parameters in School Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial (2006)

Conclusion: For a one-year period 179 girls ages 10-17 were given either a weekly placebo, low dose of vitamin D, or higher dose of vitamin D. After one year the girls given the higher dose of vitamin D showed the biggest increase in lean muscle mass and bone density, especially among the younger girls.


Vitamin D Status Among Patients with Hip Fracture and Elderly Control Subjects in Yekaterinburg, Russia (2006)

Conclusion: 63 elderly people with hip fractures were analyzed. They had lower average vitamin D levels and vitamin D deficiencies were more common in comparison to a control group of independently living elderly people.


The Prevalence of Vitamin D Inadequacy Amongst Women with Osteoporosis: An International Epidemiological Investigation (2006)

Conclusion: Of 2,606 postmenopausal osteoporotic women from 18 different countries at a variety of latitudes, 64% were vitamin D-deficient. Vitamin D deficiency is common among osteoporotic women.


Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in girls aged 4–8 y living in the southeastern United States (2006)

Conclusion: This study of 168 young girls living in the southeastern U.S. found that those with lower vitamin D levels had a lower bone mineral content, white girls have higher vitamin D levels than black girls (due to the increased melanin preventing vitamin D synthesis), their vitamin D levels dropped in the winter, and their levels increased in the summer. These girls also were found to have higher vitamin D levels compared to girls living at higher latitudes. Despite the black girls having lower pre-vitamin D levels, they had a higher bone density than the white girls. This adds support to findings of people of darker-skinned races possibly have differing vitamin D endocrine systems.


Association Between Serum 25(OH)D Concentrations and Bone Stress Fractures in Finnish Young Men (2006)

Conclusion: 800 young men from Finland’s military were had their vitamin D levels measured. In a multivariate analysis, those suffering from bone stress fractures after basic training were found to have below median vitamin D levels and were at a 3.6 times higher risk for stress fractures compared to recruits with above-median vitamin D levels.


Prevalence of Vitamin D Inadequacy Among Postmenopausal North American Women Receiving Osteoporosis Therapy (2005)

Conclusion: More than half of North American women receiving therapy to treat or prevent osteoporosis have vitamin D inadequacy”


Fracture Prevention With Vitamin D Supplementation: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials (2005)

Conclusion: Oral vitamin D supplementation between 700 to 800 IU/d appears to reduce the risk of hip and any nonvertebral fractures in ambulatory or institutionalized elderly persons.”


Vitamin D Deficiency and Whole-Body and Femur Bone Mass Relative to Weight in Healthy Newborns (2005)

Conclusion: In a study of 50 healthy mothers and their newborns, nearly half were classified as being vitamin D-deficient and newborns with lower vitamin D levels also were found to have lower bone density.


Low-Dose Vitamin D Prevents Muscular Atrophy and Reduces Falls and Hip Fractures in Women After Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial (2005)

Conclusion: A two-year study of 96 elderly, female stroke victims found that those supplementing with 1000 IU of vitamin D2 daily suffered fewer falls and hip fractures, demonstrated improved muscular strength, and enjoyed an increase in the number and size of type 2 muscle fibers compared to the placebo group.


Tanning is Associated with Optimal Vitamin D Status (Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration) and Higher Bone Mineral Density (2004)

Conclusion: A study of 50 people who use tanning beds at least once a week were found to have vitamin D levels almost twice as high, significantly higher bone density, and lower parathyroid hormone levels compared to 106 control subjects.


Vitamin D Status as a Determinant of Peak Bone Mass in Young Finnish Men (2004)

Conclusion: A study of 220 young Finnish men found that those with lower vitamin D levels had lower bone density and that their vitamin D levels dropped significantly during winter.


Nutritional Rickets Among Children in the United States: Review of Cases Reported Between 1986 and 2003 (2004)

Conclusion: This meta-analysis of 22 studies on the prevalence of rickets in American children found that 83% of kids with rickets were black and over 90% were breastfed without any supplementary vitamin D source. People with darker skin types, especially those residing in more northern latitudes, are almost universally are found to have the lowest vitamin D levels and make up a disproportionately higher amount of vitamin D-deficiency diseases and symptoms due to their high melanin content acting as a natural sunscreen blocking the UVB necessary for vitamin D production.This analysis also found that most of the rickets cases were diagnosed in the winter and spring, when population vitamin D levels are the lowest. Five of the studies analyzed that reported cases of white children developing rickets were all from extreme northern states Washington, Minnesota, New York, Connecticut, and New Hampshire, where it is physically impossible for anyone to synthesize vitamin D from sunlight for roughly half of the entire year from autumn to spring.


Association of Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations with Elevated Parathyroid Hormone Concentrations and Low Cortical Bone Density in Early Pubertal and Prepubertal Finnish Girls (2003)

Conclusion: A study of 193 young Finnish girls found that those with vitamin D-deficiency had lower bone density.


Prevalence of Severe Hypovitaminosis D in Patients With Persistent, Nonspecific Musculoskeletal Pain (2003)

Conclusion: Of 150 patients seeking treatment for chronic musculoskeletal pain, 93% were found to be vitamin D-deficient.


Calcium, Vitamin D, Milk Consumption, and Hip Fractures: A Prospective Study Among Postmenopausal Women (2003)

Conclusion: “An adequate vitamin D intake is associated with a lower risk of osteoporotic hip fractures in postmenopausal women.”


Osteoporosis and Vitamin-D Deficiency Among Postmenopausal Women with Osteoarthritis Undergoing Total Hip Arthroplasty (2003)

Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is common among women suffering from osteoarthritis.


Calcium Absorption Varies Within the Reference Range for Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (2003)

Conclusion: Researches found from two experiments that increasing people’s vitamin D levels significantly improves calcium absorption.


Effect of Four Monthly Oral Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol) Supplementation on Fractures and Mortality in Men and Women Living in the Community: Randomised Double-Blind Controlled Trial (2003)

Conclusion: A five-year randomized control trial involving 2,686 elderly men and women found that those receiving a 100,000 IU dose of vitamin D3 every four months suffered fewer fractures compared to the placebo group and had a slightly lower mortality rate.


Effects of Vitamin D Metabolites on Intestinal Calcium Absorption and Bone Turnover in Elderly Women (2002)

Conclusion: A study of vitamin D and bone mineral density levels in young Finnish girls found that those with lower vitamin D levels also had lower bone density.


Calcium Absorption Varies within the Reference Range for Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (2002)

Conclusion: People with vitamin D blood levels of 34 ng/ml have 65% better calcium absorption compared to people with levels of 20 ng/ml.


Hypovitaminosis D Myopathy Without Biochemical Signs of Osteomalacic Bone Involvement (2000)

Conclusion: Osteomalacia patients experienced improved physical performance following three months of vitamin D treatment. Another study was performed on 55 vitamin D-deficient veiled Arab women living in Denmark who were experiencing reduced muscle function due to hypovitaminosis D myopathy. They were put on high-dose vitamin D treatment for 6 months and showed improved muscle function after 3 months and 6 months compared to a control group.


Resolution of Vitamin D Insufficiency in Osteopenic Patients Results in Rapid Recovery of Bone Mineral Density (1999)

Conclusion: Vitamin D therapy proved to be effective for significantly increasing bone density in 12 osteoporosis patients.


Severe Generalized Bone Pain and Osteoporosis in a Premenopausal Black Female: Effect of Vitamin D Replacement (1998)

Conclusion: A vitamin D-deficient woman with worsening musculoskeletal pains was put through a vitamin D and calcium therapy program. The bone pain was resolved within 4 months along with significantly increased bone density.


Effect of Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation on Bone Density in Men and Women 65 Years of Age or Older (1997)

Conclusion: In a 3-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 389 elderly people, the group being treated with calcium and vitamin D had better bone density and fewer nonvertebral fractures at the end of the three years compared to the placebo group.


Calcium Absorptive Effects of Vitamin D and its Major Metabolites (1997)

Conclusion: A two-month study of 116 healthy men found that increasing their vitamin D levels through high-dose supplementation increased their calcium absorption.


Bone Mineral Density in Women with Depression (1996)

Conclusion: Compared to normal women, depressed women tend to have lower bone mineral density. Both depression and lower bone mineral density are symptoms of vitamin D deficiency.


Effects of 2 Years’ Treatment of Osteoporosis with 1 Alpha-Hydroxy Vitamin D3 on Bone Mineral Density and Incidence of Fracture: A Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Prospective Study (1996)

Conclusion: A  two-year randomized control trial involving 113 female osteoporotic patients found that those receiving supplemental vitamin D daily enjoyed higher bone density and suffered fewer fractures than the placebo group.


Seasonality of Hip Fracture and Haemorrhagic Diseases of the Newborn (1993)

Conclusion: Hip fracture rates for newborns reach their peak January-February and occur least July-August. These rates are in correlation with seasonal vitamin D level changes. Adequate vitamin D is essential for bone health. 


Vitamin D3 and Calcium to Prevent Hip Fractures in Elderly Women (1992)

Conclusion: In an 18-month-long randomized control trial experiment involving 3,270 elderly women, participants being treated with supplemental calcium and vitamin D suffered 32% fewer nonvertebral fractures compared to a placebo group.


Annual Injection of Vitamin D and Fractures of Aged Bones (1992)

Conclusion: Over a 5-year period 341 elderly people were given annual vitamin D megadose injections (150,000 IU – 300,000 IU vitamin D2) and their fracture rate during that period was compared to a group of 458 matched controls not receiving vitamin D. The vitamin D group experienced 6% fewer fractures than the control group. This is actually impressive considering that an annual dose of 150,000-300,000 IU amounts to only about 400 IU – 800 IU per day, which leading vitamin D experts agree is completely inadequate for adults, possibly even inadequate for infants, and even more inadequate for seniors. Vitamin D2 has also been found to be only about 25% as effective for raising human vitamin D levels than vitamin D3 and the half life of vitamin D is only a few months max, making an annual megadose the least reliable way of maintaining year-round adequate vitamin D status. Despite the vitamin D group receiving essentially meaninglessly insufficient vitamin D treatment, they experienced measurably superior health outcomes and no signs of vitamin D toxicity were observed following the 300,000 IU megadoses.


Vitamin D3 and Calcium to Prevent Hip Fractures in Elderly Women (1992)

Conclusion: For 18 months 1634 elderly women received a daily calcium supplement and 800 IU of vitamin D3 and their fracture rates, bone density, and parathyroid hormone levels were compared to another 1636 elderly women receiving placebos. At the end of the study the vitamin D group had suffered 43% fewer hip fractures, 32% fewer nonvertebral fractures, a vitamin D blood level increase of 162%, and parathyroid hormone level reduction of 44% compared to the placebo group. The vitamin D group also enjoyed a 2.7% increase in their bone mineral density, whereas the placebo group suffered a 4.6% decrease in their bone mineral density.


Subclinical Vitamin D Deficiency in Postmenopausal Women with Low Vertebral Bone Mass (1991)

Conclusion: Lower vertebral bone mass is correlated with low vitamin D levels in postmenopausal women.


Seasonal Variation of Lumbar Spine Bone Mineral Content in Normal Women (1983)

Conclusion: Women’s bones tend to be stronger at the end of summer compared to the end of winter. This correlates with the well-documented seasonal changes in population vitamin D levels.


Osteomalacia – – A Common Disease in Elderly Women. (1967)

Note: This includes some fascinating x-rays of bone fractures before and after osteomalacia patients underwent vitamin D treatment.


Seasonal and Annual Changes in the Calcium Metabolism of Man (1942)

Conclusion: It was observed and documented as early as 1942 that people’s calcium absorption rates reached their lowest level right after winter’s end and reached their highest level at the end of summer. It was speculated back then that this had something to do with seasonal fluctuations in the amount and strength of available sunlight and vitamin D, and, indeed, does correlate with more recent research into seasonal changes of vitamin D levels.



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